Wednesday, November 29, 2006

We are not born to die …

First of all, weather it is Andhra, Tamilnadu, Maharastra or Gujarat, dalit people’s condition is same. There is no difference in their social suffering and economic status. At the ground level, the forms of untouchability practiced by the upper caste are same. Only the names of the upper castes differ. In our Andhra if it is Kamma and Reddy land lords, in Tamilnadu may be some other castes. In all cases, intervention of state is minimal, whether it is police, judiciary in protecting the rights of dalits. We are living in a state where dalits have to struggle to even constitutionally guaranteed rights. We have to fight to implement the reservations in educational institutions, or reservations in Panchayat elections. From our experience, we understood that this battle is not so easy. We are witnessing lot of sacrifices, Aalisamma to Melavalavu Murugesan, and issues from Karamchedu to recent Keerapatti . Today dalit youth are never afraid of anyone. They decided to fight against caste hegemony. From this struggle, literature came into existence. In 1985, there is a famous dalit song from our Andhra touched many dalits,
Karamchedu bhuswamulathoti
kalabadi nilabadi
poru chesina
Dalita pululamma.

Song is the medium of communication for dalit literary and cultural movements from so many generations. Universities and literary pundits are telling that dalit literature newly came into existence in nineties. I don’t think in this way. Dalit literature or culture is very much there in the lives of dalits. In history there are struggles of dalits in various forms. The Dalit literature is very much enriched in oral forms and transmitted from one generation to other. It is in the form of social memory, collective memories. In written culture, literature of dalits came into existence very recently. We have awaited for such a long time! To write/ read dalit literature, one has to be educated. As you know most of dalits of our country are illiterate till date. This is not our fault. We are not allowed to learn for centuries. Any how, with limited opportunities we are managed to enter into Universities. We are managed to get some small jobs. However beating all the hurdles, Dalit middle class has emerged, though is small but significant at this historical juncture. It paves the way for dalit literature in written form. It created lot of trouble to literary world. It raised many questions about the basic assumptions of literature on the question of ‘authenticity’ and ‘representation’. Dalit writers dismantled all the celebrated literary canons. They declare that we will write about ourselves, we don’t need your (upper caste writers) sympathy. We have seen in Telugu literary society, the death of the ‘upper caste writer’, whether he/she is a ‘Brahminical’ or ‘Progressive’ writer. Any new struggle or literature brings new symbols and new language. It is same with dalit movement and dalit literature. It will definitely confront with existing alternative movements. If it is here in tamilnadu, dalits are differing with Dravidian politics and philosophy of Periyar and bringing Ambedkar and the issue of caste in much radical way. It is in Andhra, dalit literature confronted with left movement from parliamentary left to radical Naxalite politics on the issue of caste. There took place serious debates, confrontations, negotiations in civil society among different literary and political camps.
Mostly the questions centred on who are dalits? What is dalit literature? What is the ideology of dalit movement and dalit literature?
One dalit anthology of poetry named ‘Chikkanavutunna Pata’ edited by G.Laminarasaiah came with an idea that, SC, ST, BC and Minorities are called dalits. With other opinion came another anthology named ‘Dalit Manifesto’ edited by university students (Kesava Kumar and Satyanarayana), the laborers who are suppressed culturally, politically and economically in the name of caste are called dalits. In that anthology they didn’t add Muslim writers as dalits. The argument is clear that though Muslims are victims of hindu religion same as dalits, but not consider under category of dalits. They have to be treated differently.
The next question is, whatever written by the dalits are considered as dalit literature. Other opinion is that whatever written with dalit consciousness only considered as dalit literature. In that fashion it included even the progressive upper caste writers who are conscious of dalit problems. This view is objected by literary critics and consider that , the uppercaste writers writing about dalits is not at all dalit literature. This may be treated as sympathetic literature towards dalits rather claiming it as Dalit literature. From this perspective, the debate concluded that whatever written by the dalits from their social experience is only qualified to be dalit litetature. On the question of liberation of dalits, dalits will achieve political power only through the ‘struggle’ but not by appealing to the state. All these points reflected in dalit literature. There are many young writers came into telugu literary scene, university students, some employees, some of the people came out of the revolutionary politics. All are in between 25 and 40 years. At initial stage mostly literary expression is in the form of poetry. Later they switched over to short story and novel.
There is not only the celebration of dalit literature but also carried bitter experiences with it. At initial stage many B.C writers identified with dalit literature. Their tone is even little bit aggressive and more critical about left parties. In later stage, with strengthening of identity politics. They are excluded from dalit literature. They too realized to talk about their own cultural and social experiences. They too brought the literary anthologies in the name of ‘Bhahujan’ or ‘B.C literature’. In later days Muslims writers established their own identity in the name of Muslim ideology. As a consequence, dalit literature is exclusively identified with Mala and Madiga sub communities of Telugu society.
With emergence of Madiga Dandora movement, which demanding the categorization of SC reservation, dalit literature took new turn. Some Madiga writers came with the idea of madigization in their literary works. It came with the assertion of ‘beef eating’ and celebration of musical instrument ‘Dappu’. On the other hand most of the Mala writers are sympathetic to Dandora movement, but they pushed into a crisis. They become silent. There is no much writing further. Altogether, there prevails some silence. News papers too not entertaining dalit literature like earlier times. Some of the conscious writers shifted to short story and novel. In 2000, internalizing all the debates, Dalit novel emerged as important genre in dalit literature. Vemula Yellaiah’s ‘Kakka’ talk about the Madigization of telangana dalits, ‘Panchaman’ of Chilukuri Devaputra came with the plot, without structural change in society, dalit reaching the higher positions are no use. G.Kalyana Rao’s ‘Antarani Vasantham’ is a landmark in Telugu dalit literature. The novel is recollection of memories of dalit life. It is a conscious creative effort of the writers in writing history, culture, philosophy, politics and struggles of dalits for a period of hundred years. It emphasized that dalit struggles are in different forms in different periods. So far dalit literature centred on the suffering of dalits and writers by showing suffering expected sympathy from others. But this novel, holds that not only suffering but there are joyful movements in the life of dalits. All the characters in this novel are assertive. It ends up with the message- ‘there is no other way for dalit liberation except struggle. It is an historical necessity’.
Let me conclude with a note, as Dalit revolutionary writer Kalyana Rao upholds in his ‘Untouchable spring’ – ‘we the dalit are not born to die. But are also born to fight, end to exploitation and live as dignified human beings’. This urge will definitely create a cultural revolution in the country:

Yenninallu eegoralu
Yentamandimi kuludamu
Dalitanna nuvvu
Dandu kattakunda bhatakalemu.

(This is based on the talk on telugu Dalit literature delivered at Madurai)

Dr.P.Kesava Kumar

Monday, November 27, 2006

Telugu Dalit Literature

'Twenty years ago my name was Kanchikacherla Kotesu
My birth place Keelavenmani, Karamchedu, Neerukonda
Now the hardened cruelty of the landlords
Tattooed on my chest with a plough’s point-Chunduru
Hence forth Chunduru is not a noun nut a pronoun
Now every heart is a Chunduru, a burning
…Don’t shed tears for me
If you can
Bury me in the heart of the city
Rendering the tune of life, I will bloom like a bamboo garden
Print my corpse on the page of this country
I will diffuse into the pages of history a beautiful feature
If you can
Invoke me to your hearts
Again and again I shall take birth in this very country
By becoming a struggle of wild flames.'
(Translation Lakshminarasiah)
Kalekuri Prasad, “Pidikedu Atmagouravamkosam Talettina Vadini” (Am Raised for a Fistful of Self-respect)

Literature is a creative rational knowledge generated by an individual/author about collective/society. Indian society is a collective of heterogeneous human beings and this heterogeneity depends on a number of factors such as class, caste, gender, language, ethnicity, region, religion etc. These factors may become a source of knowledge where the individuals or authors usually reflects upon. In the case of Dalits, the problem of caste has influenced them very much. For Dalits, access to natural resources and opportunities for well being, were denied naturally or socially, because of their caste. The denial to access, restricts the Dalit individuals to a particular set of social relations for many generations and this forces them to struggle against such restrictions and change the oppressive relations. This is generally identified as a caste contradiction or the problem of caste. The conscious Dalit individuals responded to this kind of social situation and offered a creative solution to the problems. This creative ideal model takes the form of a story, a novel, a poem or a song and is introduced back into the society. Dalit struggles around him/ her influenced the Dalit writers and made them conscious of their subjective positions and in assessing the world around them objectively.

Historically, the social groups, which had acquired political and economic dominance, enjoyed the privilege over cultural production and others got silenced. Western influenced middle class, those who later played a major role in moulding the nationalist struggles, involved in the production of literary writings. It is obviously, the upper caste group’s ideals and aspirations and their worldview reflected in literature too. In the post independent India, modern State was unable to uphold the promised ideals of good life and better society to the vast number of the oppressed of this country. In the political writings of literature of this time, there emerged an upper caste middle-class man as a protagonist. He is sympathetic to the lower classes and he articulates their needs and is seen to be mobilizing the oppressed masses.

There are very few writings which talk about Dalits and their life. Those that exist come out as the sympathy of the upper caste writers towards labourers as a part of the class struggles. The protagonists in the literary writing is always from the upper caste groups. They are portrayed as shouldering the responsibility to reform/educate Dalits. This completely lacks knowledge about the authentic Dalit life and their experiences. These upper caste writers have constrains to perceive the lives of other communities. These socially sensitive upper caste writers could not mobilize the support of their communities to their imagined ideals and many of them moved towards spiritualism. Most of the writers came from Brahmin middle class families.

In latter days, the intensified struggles aspiring the communist ideals too failed to capture the Dalit imagination and the question of caste remained immune to their discourses. Till the 1980s, the entire literary discourse centred around the concept of the abstract human being, erosive of all cultural markers like caste, colour, religion, region and gender.

The radical contribution the entry of the Dalit literary movement was to bring is to foreground the Dalit cultural experiences characterized by humiliation, insult and suffering based on caste. By the 1980s, there emerged a considerable Dalit middle class which consists of small jobholders like teachers, clerks, constables, nurses, gang men, hamalies and attenders. Their exposure to education and economic security opened up new possibilities in politics and literature. In the Andhra politics, Dalit movement is known for the innovation of a new category called Dalit, making discrimination on the basis of caste explicit. In the left parlance, the amorphous landless masses, an agricultural coolie is being replaced by category Dalit. In Gandhian terms, the word harijan has been pushed aside. The conceptual innovation has opened up the new ways of articulating the Dalit cause. This is clearly visible in the field of activity from theory to art.

In India, Dalit people’s condition is the same cutting across the regions. There is not much difference in their social suffering and economic status. At the ground level, the forms of untouchability practiced by the upper castes are same. They have to face humiliations, insults and discrimination in everyday life. In case of the Dalits, intervention by the State is minimal, weather it is police or judiciary, in protecting the rights of the Dalits. They have to struggle even for constitutionally guaranteed rights. There is no option left for them other than fighting against caste hegemony. From their struggles, a literature came into existence. In late eighties, the issue of caste came to the forefront in Andhra Pradesh. This can be seen symbolically in the massacre at Karamchedu. As a consequence of the conscious mobilization of Dalits, the issue related to caste got articulated in literature in late nineties. Many anthologies of poetry in the form of poetry came into the limelight. The quest for the search of their own Dalit identity makes them broaden the literary horizons. Dalit writers questioned not only the basic premises of literature but also the epistemological positions of the existing writers. They supplied a new prism to perceive the crude reality of casteist society. With the well-debated question of representation and subjectivity, the upper caste writers were either silenced or sidelined.

Song is the medium for Dalit literary and cultural movements from so many generations. Their folk forms centred on songs. There exists a general opinion that Dalit literature came into existence in late eighties. It is true that Dalit literature or culture is there in the lives of Dalits. In history, there are struggles of Dalits in various forms. Dalit literature is very much enriched in oral forms and transmitted from one generation to other. It is in the form of social memory and collective memories. The written culture or literature of Dalits may owe its existence to recent times. The pre-requisite for written culture is education. Most of the Dalits are illiterate even today. This is not their fault. They are not allowed to learn for generations. However, with limited opportunities, they have managed to enter educational institutions and have managed to get at least some small jobs. In post-independent India, a considerable Dalit middle class has emerged, though the number is small but it is significant in Indian history. This has paved the way for Dalit literature in the print word. Dalit writers have jolted the literary world. They raised many questions about the basic assumptions of literature on the question of authenticity and representation. Their entry, dismantled all the literary canons. They declared that we will write about ourselves. Telugu literary society has witnessed the silence of the existing upper caste writer, weather it is Brahminical or progressive writer. Any new struggle or literature, brings new symbols and new language. It is same with the Dalit movement and Dalit literature. It is in Andhra that Dalit writers are confronted with the ideologies of alternative struggles in the issue of caste. Here serious debates, confrontations and negotiations in civil society are taking place among different literary and political camps.

Mostly, the questions centred on who are Dalits? What is Dalit literature? What is the ideology of the Dalit movement and Dalit literature? One Dalit anthology of poetry named Chikkanavutunna Pata(1995)[ii]came with a proposition that SC, ST, BC and Minorities are also called Dalits. At the same time, another anthology named Dalit Manifesto (1995)[iii] proposed that, the labourers who are suppressed culturally, politically and economically are called Dalits. They didn't include Muslim writers in their anthology by justifying that though Muslims are victims of Hindu religion as Dalits, they cannot be considered under the category of Dalits. Secondly, whatever is written by the Dalits are considered as Dalit literature. Dalit Manifesto argued that, whatever was written with Dalit consciousness could only be considered as Dalit literature, but not the other way. The Dalit Manifesto become controversial by considering the latter and for inclusion of progressive upper caste writers who are conscious of Dalit problems. In course of time, this controversy resolved itself by considering whatever is written by the Dalits with their social experience is only qualified to be Dalit literature. The non-Dalits writings about Dalits may be treated as sympathetic for the cause of Dalits, but not considered as Dalit literature. For the liberation of Dalits, Dalits will have to achieve political power only through the struggle but not by appealing to the State. Some others consider that it is not necessarily through the means adopted by radical left parties but also through various other means like capturing power through parliamentary means. On the question of ideology, there are different opinions. Desiya Marxism is one such dominant opinion, the Marxist philosophy that is internalised thinking of Ambedkar and Phule.

Later came the Padunekkina Pata(1996)[iv] an anthology of poetry. It declared that Ambedkarism is the only ideology for the liberation of Dalits. In all these controversies, one can see the confrontation or negotiation with the then existing alternative political struggles. One of the responses was that Dalit literature was saying that it is a part of revolutionary literature[v]. Some of the scholars of the Marxist camp considered the problem of caste as a class problem. There is another argument that both are different literary movements. “Dalit writers consider the caste as an economical, social and political system. Where as revolutionary writers consider caste as a social problem.”[vi] Dalit literary movement is autonomous and is no way related to Marxism. “The aim of revolutionary literature is economic equality and it is a casteless society for Dalit literature. For the emergence of Dalit literature, revolutionary literature may have facilitated; but it is improper to say that both are the same.”[vii] There emerged another opinion that though both of them are not related, there is a need to struggle in a united way against oppression.[viii]

The literary expression of Dalit writers started with poetry, which has enjoyed power over other forms. To suit the authentic expression of their lives they also selected the other forms like ‘short story’ and ‘novel’. The inner urge or struggle within them has propelled them to write short stories and novels. This is a significant transformation of Dalit writers. At least, it creates confusion in locating history. Novel and short story not only broadened the canvas of the writers and made them accountable to history. The Dalit writers probed the history and brought into the literary world many things, which were not touched earlier by other the upper caste writers. In fact, Dalit writers narrated the submerged culture, philosophy and histories of the Dalits. The political discourses of Marxian revolutionary and feminist movements also influenced the Dalit novelists. It made them sensitive to other struggles, while writing about Dalits. Wherever it is necessary, they differed with Marxian revolutionary politics and its practices. The rise of sub caste consciousness among the Dalits helped the writers to speak about the concrete lifestyles of Dalit’s sub-castes rather than political rhetoric and language of the given time. Dalit novel may be said to be the culminating point of all the political movements since Dalit novelist has internalised the essence of all these struggles.

However, in the decade of the nineties, a good number of Dalit writers have come to the forefront. Most of them are of the age group of 25-35 years. They have touched all the spheres of life from a caste point of view. For example, early writings in Telugu consider the life of riksha pullers and prostitutes and treated them sympathetically for their low economic status. Dalit literature depicted the same from a Dalit point of view. Through literature, Dalit writers gave attention to concrete life experiences of Dalit lives that had so far not been touched by any one in Telugu literature. Some of the newspapers have encouraged Dalit literature. Where the Dalit movement is at a low profile, there the Dalit writers kept the Dalit issue alive. Dalit literature introduced fresh tones to Telugu literature. The idiom and expression is new to Telugu literature. They brought the respect to native Dalit dialect. The Dalit writers shattered the constructed myths in literature both in form and content. Literature came close to their life. It occupied the political space and even tried to articulate all the problems.

The Madiga Dandora movement for the categorization of SC reservation proportionate to the population of sub caste triggered a new kind of articulation in the Dalit movement as well as in Dalit literature. The logic of representing one’s own self led tofragmentation in Dalit literature. It is understood that writing about one’s caste experience is the only authentic representation. Dalit writers were forced to write/represent their own caste. In one way, this atmosphere enriched Dalit literature by representing themselves. On the other, it weakened the force of Dalit writings. Most of the Dalit writers of Mala community become silent within no time. Some time, the madiga writers were on the centre-stage when they wrote about their life struggles. Chandala Chatimpu, Madigodu (The Stories of Madiga’s life) of Nagappagari Sundar Raju and Mallemoggala Godugu (The Umbrella of Jasmines) of Yendluri Sudhakar are worth mentioning. Writers, who belong to backward castes too got separated from the earlier Dalit identity and became confined to their own community life. They brought an anthology of poems with a name of Ventade Kalalu (Haunting Pens). Muslim writers also made a conscious attempt to assert their own identity. They came with a poetry collection named Jaljala. Dalit women too started questioning the oppression of caste and patriarchy of Dalit males and this got articulated in literature. Nallapoddu (The Black Dawn) is an exclusive collection of Dalit women’s writings.

At end of the decade of nineties, Dalit writers who are active in writing poetry are slowly disappearing from Telugu literary scene. There are other reasons for the silence of Dalit literature. One is that, there is no significant Dalit movement and political leadership. The Dalit writers, who mostly came from the middle class, are limited to their urban life and somewhere lost their roots. There is competition among Dalit writers and their career orientation is also responsible in diluting Dalit literarure. There is no political or public check on Dalit writers since there is no political struggle. Thirdly, Dalit writers, are mostly confined to poetry and they didn’t take effort in other forms like story, novel, song and autobiography forms. They succeeded in tapping their rich literature from oral traditions. Finally, the upper caste media was not showing interest like earlier days in encouraging Dalit literature.

At this historical juncture, some of Dalit writers shifted to the other genres like story, song and novel to construct their cultural past and struggles of the community. They too realized that nothing is available about them in government documents and literary, cultural works. To win the political struggles Dalits need to be armed culturally. Kalyana Rao’s novel Antarani Vasantham(2000)[ix] is a landmark in Dalit literary and cultural history from the Dalit point of view. The novel recorded the collective social experiences and struggles of Dalit community. The social memory of a community, transmitted over generations, has been put in a written form. The novel is a written social document of Dalit culture, which is predominantly in oral tradition. This novel is an attempt to search a collective identity of the Dalit community. It is the chronicle of life of six generations of Dalits. This records a hundred years’ struggle of the Dalit communities. In the context where the elite scholars do not consider lower caste peoples’ struggles, culture, philosophy, life styles and history, this novel becomes the source book for culture, history, politics and philosophy of Dalits. Kalyana Rao explained how the Dalit culture is born from the lower caste peoples’ involvement in labor. They spontaneously and naturally composed the songs from their life. Apart from the value of entertainment, the Dalits used cultural performance symbolically as a social protest against the dominance of hegemony of upper caste social groups. It explains Dalit struggles in various forms in a given social conditions. The novel depicts not only the sufferings of Dalits but also joyful moments in their life. This novel is an attempt towards writing history, philosophy, politics and culture of Dalits in a a comprehensive form. In Antarani Vasantham, constraints to freedom of Dalits, comes from an enemy who is an upper caste. The idea of freedom itself indicates for Kalyana Rao, a perpetual flow of resistance by Dalit community to an upper caste community. Dalit community has been described as a focal point of creativity, resistance to oppression and a character of purity.

Yendluri Sudhakar’s Malle Moggala Godugu is a collection of autobiographical stories from the Dalit community. It is the Dalit poet Sudhakar’s search for his community roots where a rich cultural tradition and indigenous knowledge systems were enlivened. To write these stories he went to his native village and recorded the social and cultural experiences of older generations. Vemula Yellaih’s novel Kakka is a Dalit boy’s struggle for madigization. He learns to play Dappu from the community’s head as a symbol of pride of the community. This novel, not only discuss the Dalit struggle against the upper caste hegemony but also finds the problems within Dalit community. In the Telugu literary world, the Dalit novel is the culmination point of all the alternative struggles. It internalized the struggles of Dalit sub castes, women and naxalite movements.

The Dalit writers may have failed to take the literary, cultural movement further. But, the questions raised through literature are fresh and haunts the political movements of our contemporary times in all possible ways. All the upper caste writers ranging from Brahminical to progressive writers has compelled to take note of it.

[i] Prasad, Kalekuri. ”Pidikedu Atmagauravam Kosam Talettina Vadini.” (Am Raised for a Fistful of Self-respect) In Kesava Kumar & K. Satyanarayana (Eds.) Dalit Manifesto. Hyderabad: Vishphotana, 1995.
[ii] Laxmi Narasaiah, G. and Tripuraneni Sreenivas (Eds.) Chikkanavutunna Pata(Thickening Song), Vijayawada: Kavitvam ,1995.
[iii] Kesava Kumar and K.Satyanarayana (Eds.) Dalit Manifesto, Hyderabad: Vishpotana, 1995.
[iv] Laxminarasaih, G. (Ed.) Padunekkina Pata(Sharpened Song), Vijayawada: Dalita Sana, 1996.
[v] Satyanarayana ,K. Eee Potee Venaka Vunnadi Kutra ,Andhrajothy Daily, Sunday, January 28, 1996.
[vi] Laxminarasaiah, G. Dalita Sahityanikee Viplava Sahityanikee Ddrukpadhallo Tedavundi, Andhrajyothy Sunday, December 17, 1995.
[vii] Je.Sree. Potee Anadam Vidduram – Kutra Anadam Kruram, Andhrajyothy Daily, Sunday, February 18, 1996.
[viii] Danee, Usha S. Mudu Sangha Samskaranalu- Aru Dalita Srenulu, Andhrajothy Daily, Sunday, August 13, 1995.
[ix] Kalyana Rao, G. Antarani Vasantham(Untouchable Spring), Hyderabad: Virasam, 2000.

Dr.P.Kesava Kumar

Wednesday, November 22, 2006

'Uproot Hindutva':Dalit Panther leader Thirumavalavan

For me the Wound is not new
Only the way I got wounded is new
This experience is as past as yesterday
Only the way I got experienced is new

Kilvenmani , Karamchedu, Tsundur, Belchi, Puliyangundi, Tamrabarani, Melavalapu, Thinniyam, Goundanpatti…
Now these places are familiar by atrocities on dalits, humiliations on dalits, insults on the dignity of dalits. Not only these incidents, there is discrimination and caste hegemony ruling everywhere in India. Whether it is Andhra , Tamilnadu, Bihar, Maharastra, whether it is a village or city, university, office, temple, street or any other public sphere. Our visibility could not be tolerated by the ruling castes. This is pan Indian phenomenon.
Now we the dalits resisting the hegemony of caste and taken the route of fighting. We are in the process of creating history. We stand collectively with ‘swayam maryada’.

As my poet friend Kalekuri sings ‘Now I’m Raised For a fist of self- respect’,
Twenty years ago my name was Kanchikacherla Kotesu
my birth place Keela Venmani, Karamchedu, Neerukonda
now the hardened cruelty of the landlords
tattooed on my chest with a plough’s point-chunduru
hence forth chunduru is not a noun but a pronoun
now every heart is a chunduru, a burning.
It is from these burnings of tamil society Thirumavalavan and Viduthali Chiruthagal (Dalit Panthers of India ) raised as a phoenix bird with a powerful message of libearation.
Though I’m from the neghbouring state Andhra Pradesh and actively involved in post Mandal dalit politics, I’m not heard of Thirumavalavan and Dalit panthers till recently. I came to know only through his translated books how radical the movement of dalit panthers is. How many dalits shed their life for dalit cause! How you people committed to philosophy of revolutionary Ambedkar. As the title of the book ‘Uproot Hindutva’ is the slogan given by Ambedkar. Now I’m seeing DPI committing to this ideology.

Uproot hindutva is Tirumavalavan’s the second translated work into English after ‘Talisman’. Where as ‘Talisman- the extreme emotions of dalit liberation’ is made from his column in Tamil weekly magazine of India Today, ‘Uproot Hindutva –the fiery voice of the liberation panthers’ is the collected speeches of him at various occasions in recent times. Both of them are meant for ‘others’, other than his own constistuency ‘dalits’. It may have its own limitations in expressing his views to larger tamil society and had a burden of convincing them for his cause. Of course he maintained consistency in all his writings and speeches without compromising his political stand. In assessing Tirumavalavam, one should not forget that he is more than these books. He is a leader, scholar, orator, cultural thereotician, social scientist with strong commitment for his own dalits and becoming a rallying point for many dalits. He is the symbolic representation social aspiration of lakhs of dalits. He is a conscious collective identity of dalits of Tamil society. His ideas have implications in reconstructing the indian nation and in creating new democratic society. The ongoing struggles of dalit panthers are helpful in understanding the Indian society from radical dalit perspective. It is not possible for anybody to see dalit panthers and Thirumavalavan separately.
As the statues of our national leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Bose are replaced by Ambedkar, as a powerful speaker/leader Thirumavalavan replaced all the Dravidian leaders like Annadurai, MGR and Karunanidhi etc. No tamil scholar matched for his rich enlightened vocabulary of popular tamil language. The translators had even struggle to get apt words in English.
Uproot Hindutva is the dalit panthers democratic war against the hindutva which are in hiding in the name of Indian nationalism. This is a dalits search for alternative to brahminised Dravidian politics of the day. These speeches are pointed against prevailing hegemony of the ideology of the uppercastes and conscious effort to establish the cultural and political hegemony of the oppressed for a democratic social order.
For dalits, politics, culture, struggle and life are not separate. Like any conscious dalit, Tirumavalan is the culmination of all. He is organic intellectual in a true spirit of Gramsci. He is the intellectual by social function in directing the ideas and aspirations of the dalits which he organically belongs to. He had a thinking and organizing element of a of dalits. As he pointed out there are two types of intellectuals, one is traditional and other is organic intellectuals. Traditional intellectuals are born from books and ends up with books. They are professionals. . Most of our university intellectuals and brahminical scholars comes under this. As you know very well that intellectuals emerges out of the social crisis and from social movements. We have seen so far there are separate category of intellectuals like poets, writers, critics exist from the political leaders of its corresponding movement. Dalit movement erased this distinction. Dalit intellectual has to play multiple roles as a historian, political leader, activist, cultural and literary person and from writing poetry to pasting posters. Dalit liberation is not easy task. He has to face so many hurdles. He has to prepare for many sacrifices. Whole community has to be asserted and consolidated. One can see all these elements in Thirumavalan in terms of thinking, expression and directing and organizing political party of dalits.

Thirumavalan and Tamil nationalism
In all his writings and speeches reflects his commitment to tamil nationalism. As you know there is social movement of tamilnadu without having influence of tamil nationalist liberation struggles. He started his career as a creative writer in support of tamil nationalist movement to Vidhuthalai Chirutugal, i.e. journey from struggles of tamil nationalism to dalit liberation. People like me curious to know the link between dalit politics and tamil nationalism. Very particularly in the context where Thirumavalavan and his party taking ignition to tamil names, What kind of logic he provides. Let me spell out my feelings in this issue. As you all know Dravidian politics overplayed this tamil nationalism. It is known fact that Thirumavalavan and dalits are critical about the contemporary Dravidian politics on the charge of acquired character of brahminisation. On the other hand tamil nationalism could not allow to open up the existing contradictions in tamil society. Tamil nationalism may conceals differences in tamil society by projecting itself as an universal category. Even the Brahmins can effectively use it by saying we are all tamilians and consequently dilute the struggles of the dalits of tamil society. only after reading Tirumavalan’s books I came to know his position and what potential it had in liberating the dalits. At first tirumavalavan counters Indian nationalism/hindu nationalism with tamil nationalism. Very often in his speeches he made his position clear that the ideologies of Hindutva and Brahminism are assimilated with Indian nationalism .the Indian government as an institution that protects the already established social, economic and political structures. Further he continues, the historical truth is that tamilians are not hindus. By identifying with hiunduism tamils can never destroy caste.Tamilian remaining as a hiundu could not defeat hindutva. Thirumavalavan’s tamilians is of no caste and religion of hindu. His tamil nationalism is linked up with the project of annihilation of caste. His conception of tamil identity encompasses with not only language but also culture, land, history, politics and the struggles of liberation. In that way dalit liberation politics and tamil nationalism are intimately connected.
Let me elobarate further, tamil identity is not just a linguistic identity. As an eminent philosopher Wittegenstein said language is the form of life. Life has to be understood as social life. Social life exists in our social relationships. The social relationships are much rooted in our cultural life. For Thirumavalavan, tamil identity means it is all. He believed that tamil society is much more democratic society. There is no trace of caste system and is different from Brahminism, Hinduism and Aryanism. This distinct identity is maintained for so many centuries. On contrary to this our existing relationships hierarchy prevails there exists one over the other. The caste system is responsible for this. The hindu religion had the sole responsibility for strengthening it. It is the characteristic of brahminism/Hinduism which is internalized into Indian nationalism. In the course of time even it influencing the tamilians. Again to revive tamil identity one has to necessarily annihilate this caste system.
One advangate of with holding tamil nationalism, is that Dravidian parties could not totally monopolise over the legacy of tamil nationalism and extends the space for dalit politics. For communists even today the question of nationality is unresolved. For the dalit politics of Thirumavalan and his party this problem doesn’t exist. But one thing has to be remained that when dalit liberation struggles are linked up the Tamil nationalism, it needs critical and creative intervention. Otherwise it loses its whole purpose.

Liberation of dalits is not an easy task. We have already seen so many sacrifices. Apart from the political, social, cultural and economic hegemony of upper castes dalits have to face the state and its machinery, the police, judiciary etc. To create dalit hegemony in all respect we have to armed culturally, and politically. Thirumavalan’s writings are testimony of this realization.
Bharat nayam is not some new dance form. Hindutva and casteism entered into our arts, into our culture- and our arts and culture assumed different forms. They changed the methods of worship. The mother of all this is the culture of the Cheri people, the arts of the Cheri people. Only we live a life of community. Only we have a culture of equality (p.7). It is our duty to protect the cultural aspects that awaken our liberation.
Commenting on the contemporary politics of tamilnadu, In the northern states, the uppercastes bear weapons and form private armies to protect their land and their power. In the same way, extremely regressive castiests, who call themselves leaders of Dravidian movement, mobilize the backward caste people against dalits. They build anti- Dravidian movements. They say we should not have political reservations. (1998 dalit performing art festival).
There is acriticism against Thirumavalavan that he is consciously ignoring the antibrahmin icon Periyar. He is gentle enough to say that how many Periyarist’ homes have Ambedkar’s photograph. One has to consider this seriously.

Reflecting on the anti conversion law of Jayalalitha, Religious conversion is a fundamental right for the dalits, the sons of the soil, to attempt to change their cultural identity in opposition to hindutva atrocities and casteist rampages. Religious conversion is the last weapon in the hands of dalit people, the cheri people, the proletariat.(154)

Not only pointing out caste discrimination, he made an effort to consolidate the democratic forces of tamil society. In fact he played a role in forming a third front, dalit parties alliance with Muslim and left parties. Even in the alliances he is catios of his subjective position. Dalits-muslims-leftists : an alternative to the Dravidian parties , third front in the name of people’s front formed 2004 parlimentary elections.
Atleast from this minute onwards dalits, minorities and leftists must have the long term perspective to realize that it s essential for them to rally together and convene under a single front, and they must act accordingly.
Casteism has not become a special objects for debate. A public opinion has been formed to oppose communalism. A public opinion has not formed to combat casteism. The issue of communalism is not side tracked as the problem of muslims. But casteism is sidelined as the problem of dalits. The perspective of viduthalai chiruthaigal is that unless this situation changes, it is not possible for he people to be this matter, a review is necessary among progressive forces…, if the CPI (ML) organizes agitations against casteism, we are ready to join hands with them. (p.28)
I’m concluding with the words of Thirumavalavan :
I don’t have the belief that by fighting and debating in the legislative assembly, in the parliament, we can retrieve our rights. Only through a people’s struggle we can liberate, we can protect the democratic rights- we can not lose this belief. We should never move away from this. Our right to struggle must never be destroyed.(p.53)
Dr.P.Kesava Kumar

Tuesday, November 21, 2006

Untouchable Spring
Tsunami: A Challenge to Science and Religion
Dr. P. Kesava Kumar

From 26th December 2004 onwards, the word Tsunami entered into a vocabulary of common people of India. It is reported that more than one and half lakh people are washed away by this and people who survived had lost everything. There was no mark of their thatched houses nearby the shore. Most of them were the people depending on the sea for everyday survival other than the morning walkers on the beach side or the people came to spend their trips at beach resorts. More over it has created a violent mark on the minds of people. It is an experience of nightmare. The word still hunting and even after seeing a small wave fisher folk got frightening. Fisher folk are known for their heroic deeds on sea and especially for their skills in negotiating with sea. Now after this incident suddenly lost the confidence to venture into sea. Some how he picked up the confidence and managed to get fish, there is nobody to buy it. The consumers caught in irrational fear that fish is likely to be contaminated. Altogether livelihood is at stake and lost the direction. They are looking after the people who are coming in their help. Apart from the state and its machinery, now they are surrounded by NGOs, Religious organizations and some political organizations. Here I’m not questioning anybody’s sincerity and commitments for the fellow being. But at the same time every group has their own agenda and like take advantage out of the crisis ridden situation of people at shore. For NGOs they got the cause to serve the people and got a chance to get funds from donor agencies. We are hearing the news that the competition of all the religious organization to establish their base among the victims of Tsunami. The RSS, ISCON, Seva Bharathi, Ramakrishna Mission, Buddhists and Christian Missionaries are actively involving in this philanthropic work. There are media reports of conflicts among these religious groups in a way coming close to these people. One may accuse me for criticizing this phenomenon rather than helping the people who are in need. I have my own ideas and concerns for people and not momentary. I would like to see this Tsunami and after effects from the peoples point of view in keeping in mind long term solutions which can promise the better livelihood and dignified life .
One may wonder to ask is this natural calamity called Tsunami is a challenge to science and religion. In one sense I would like to affirm that, yes, it is. Here I’m not particular about any one religion, but the concept of religion as a whole. This includes every religion. You are all aware that Science came in opposition to the very conception of religion. Science got prominence with the enlightenment and its influence on society in understanding it naturalistic way. Science came as a modern enterprise stand opposite to the traditional life supported by religion. The modernity sought to demolish and replace established forms of knowledge dependent on religious authority such as the theory of creation of the world. This new forms of scientific knowledge depended exclusively on experience, experiment and reason. Historically until 18th century religion has a hold over human life in many aspects. The knowledge about the creation of the world, man’s place in the world, his duties and destiny was dominated and determined by the religion. Knowledge is continually referred to scriptural sources and transmitted through schools, colleges, institutions of religion. Science made an attempt to emancipate man from the ties of superstition and ignorance. Science had conscious efforts to reveals the mysteries of nature. It had a serious blow on the feudal social relationships which is hand in glove with religion. Scientific approach helped in understanding of social phenomenon on the basis of human experience. It played a role in improving human life. However, both religion and science had a tremendous impact on human society. Both of them provided a form of knowledge to understand man and the world in a distinctive manner. Some body may point out knowledge can not distinguished as religious or scientific. This may be true partially. Our knowledge came out of social necessity. Man struggled with nature for his survival. Out of his struggles knowledge got evolved. He worked out to get control over nature. He made an every effort to explain the natural phenomenon. Where he failed to explain he surrendered to the natural forces. There religion got importance, it came to rescue him. It consoled him when he was weak. It gave him security in times of uncertainty. It gave a hope when man feels life is miserable and man had a fear of death. In early stage one can not distinguish science and religion. Now we are using these terms in sense of different world view. At present in our commonsensical understanding we are using it with different connotations.
Then, one may ask how come you treat both of the terms in a same plane. Let me clear my position. When I’m saying Tsunami a challenge to science, I’m not belittling or questioning the credentials of science. I’m pointing only the process of production of scientific knowledge. How scientific knowledge is produced at the contemporary times. Further whose benefits it is carried out. I’m only questioning the existing relationship between scientific enterprises, state and society. My intention is that our science and technology should be people centric.

The day after Christmas, we have seen this tragic happening. This tsunami killed the people of all religions-Hinudus of India, Christians of Nagapattinam, Buddists of Srilanka, Muslims of Indonesia and a people of no religion. I’m not generalizing, but it happened to be mostly poor people whose livelihood based on the sea were killed. The people of well constructed houses nearby sea and people away from the sea were managed to escape from this to certain extent. After happenings of Tusnami not only the people living at shore and others are also terrified. They become insecure. Some where the question striking in their mind, what our God is doing? What sin we did to punish like this? The lady running away from the sea has scolding the sea and God. What all our gods doing? We totally believed and developed blind faith and prayed, submitted ourselves and kneeled in front of gods. We even never suspected his existence. The conscious youth are asking, what our government is doing? Can’t they predict earlier. In IIT Chennai the students feel guilty for not providing people centred technology and put a poster on the institute notice boards. Nowadays for every government information technology is a buzz word. What information has passed for the people at risk. The statement that we are lining in the world of information age has to be checked. Tsunami touched coast of Indian Ocean ranging from Indonesia to Somalia via Srilanka, but media not in a position to capture the images lively. The video images of amateur Thailand photographer is only proof and played time and again in our channels. Media is running along with the political functionaries, its priorities are quite different.
Religion had clever enough in accommodating contrary arguments and finds escape routes. The concept of God is central to religion. God is created this world. God is identified as omnipotent, and omniscience. He is benevolent, all kind and had the qualities of all good of our world. He is the moral Governor. He is ultimate authority in all our human affairs. He should not be questioned. Everything is determined by him.
The first objection is that if God is so kind and all good, why he has committed this act to kill this poor innocent people who struggling to live on sea. Then there is a doubt God lost control over nature. Believers of religion won’t accept nature and men are not in his control, in fact they used to say that he had created this world and everything happening only on his will. Then it can be understood as the god is so cruel and merciless. Nobody is ready to accept. The reply for this is, God knows everything. This is the God’s plan since the world is so corrupted and God taught to teach a lesson to his people. The other form of this argument is it is just fate and depends on one’s karma. Why the corruption of world is attributing only to these people. What karma has done the innocent children who died in this Tsunami. There is just contrary argument is that it doesn’t like to brand these people as corrupt and holds the argument that God decide to take these people into his world of heaven from this corrupt and miserable world. This argument stretched further, those people who killed will definitely get the moksa or liberation which is highest ideal of life, the ultimate purushartha. The religious organizations and its believers are praying for this.
We are listening many stories both in media and oral traditions in further strengthening blind religious beliefs. No body in a position to gave up their subjective positions, their beliefs, and prejudices. Religious beliefs rather down playing their arguments they are sharpened their arguments and try to keep the status quo position. Religion had a double edged sword; the believers use it either way. In this religious garb it won’t allow you to question any thing relating to God and religion. Other than providing the above standard religious arguments, it won’t allow even to think about any naturalistic explanation. Why is it happen? What are the scientific reasons for Tsunami. Rather asking the questions about very conception of religion and god, it may circulate stories of great human concern that people of all communities without any distinction taken shelter at mosque, church, and temple-religion in the name of concern. Further it takes advantage in exploiting the crisis times. Many religion organizations came forward to adopt the villages. One can see overplay of religious symbols and big banners in their names. Media is value neutral, it also play a role of sharing or strengthening dominant religious notions. One can understand that religion can provide hope in helpless situation. This doesn’t stand for the test of rationality.
Tsunami is not such mysterious phenomenon that first time happened. History reveals that many times it happened prior to this 26th December 2005.Why our governments are not taken note of it? At first, Tsunami is not beyond the scientific apprehension. One may predict earlier. Secondly, the volcanic eruption to reach the shore it takes certain time. In this mean time the consequence of the dangerous wave may informed to people on shore and government can make alert. Is our sea untouched by the research? This is not true. There are many efforts from MNCs to exploit the resources of the sea. There are studies and research carried in that direction. The big question is why there is no serious research in relating to Tsunami. Why we are not produced need based and people centric technology.
I would like to argue that scientific knowledge and technological innovations could not develop on its own. Though they develop from social necessities, it needs proper encouragement from the state. The priorities of the state always matters in scientific enterprise. The state is concentrated more on Defense technology and spending more in persuasion of such scientific innovations and technology. Most of our budget allocation is done for this purpose. It doesn’t have any concern for the people centred technology and the needs of the people. The other reason might be people affected by the natural calamities like Tsunami is mostly belonging to poor. The state doesn’t have serious concern for these people. They are much worried about the nuclear reactors at Kalpakkam and nuclear bombs and missiles. The unaccountable money is spending in this venture in the name of nation’s threat and security. The ultimate decision makers in the development of science are not scientists but the state. In other words, the politicians occupied the office of state. State intervenes in the production of knowledge systems. And our knowledge and the fruits of science are not reached the people. Still it maintained as a secret. Science has to taken to popular level. One should not forget that without any warning from the state or advantage of technology, lakhs of people saved on their own from Tsunami just by common sense. At least our science should take note of common sense and it should reach at common sensical experience of the people.
On the other hand the people affected by the Tsunami are not much interested in clothes, food packet , some provisions of immediate needs but they are very much worrying about their future. Any way government is not in a position to create an alternative employment to this fishing folk. They require confidence to lead their life at shore. They have love and hate relations with sea. They have to be educated about these kinds of natural calamities like Tsunami rather preaching religious conformativism. It is not the fate or decision of the God, it can be explained. State has to take such responsibility in enlightening people and in inculcating scientific spirit. Technology has to be developed that can give confidence in people and in understanding the relationship of man with nature.
The people living at shore are not at the mercy of the state. This is their right to get the livelihood and to lead a dignified life since fisherfolk contributing to our economy. Because of imposition of religious ideas and lack of scientific education again people are forced live in chaotic and miserable life. The conflicts among the victims of different castes (Dalits and fishermen) are due to this religious conservatism. The situation demands the dignified life, it is possible only through the politicization of the victims of Tsunami .The community centred science is helpful to realize this rather existing ideologies of religious faith and ‘unconcerned scientific knowledge’.
In case the state is not much concerned about poor fisherfolk, at least it has to show its concern to raise the economy through tourism by attracting the tourists. To have a safe and secure life for tourists at beach resorts, state has to take care of tsunami. Even to protect our Defence technology and Nuclear reactors,( which are happened to be located at nearby sea shore), state has to consider seriously to encourage science and technology to protect from natural calamities like Tsunami.
"Performance of Social Memory... In Search of Dalit Culture",

Thursday, November 02, 2006

Politics of Literature
Contemporary Telugu Katha

Dr.P.Kesava Kumar

This paper maps the politics of the contemporary Telugu Katha. It is an attempt to locate the history of Telugu katha in order to contextualize the politics of antholoization over a period of time. With the advent of print culture the literary and cultural forms of oppressive social groups such as Dalits, women, adivasis, Telangana, Muslims got marginalized and literary elite (happened to be brahminical class) managed to establish their social experience and their literary imagination as ‘the Telugu literature’ in whatever the form it may be. With intensified struggles of these submerged groups, there comes a new literary consciousness with the emergence of middle classes from these sections. It will focus on how the struggles of society marked the literature, and especially in contemporary times from the decades of late eighties. On the one hand they are resisting the brahminical hegemony and on the other questioning the existing abstract idea of ‘class’ and ‘progressive’ literature by enriching their literature with the concrete life experiences/struggles. This paper argues that there is a need to redefine ‘progressiveness’ contextually by explaining through diverse claims of ‘best short story’ in telugu literature. It concludes that the methods of evaluation of the ‘best story’ has to be changed by considering specificity of the problems faced by particular social group and their unique style of expression rather generalizing.

Telugu Katha has emerged today as the most celebrated genre among other literary genres of Telugu society. It has evolved both in terms of content and narrative technique. The social struggles of contemporary times have paved the way for Katha to reach its heights. Contradictions in the Telugu society have surfaced and become further politicized from eighties onwards. The struggles in the name of class, caste, gender, region, nation has provided the social context for implicit politics of Telugu literature. Added to this, the policies of liberalization of economy, hindu communalization and globalization further brought about changes in social structure and its value system. Inequalities have become sharpened in these times of globalization. Insecurity prevails among all sections of society. To transform these inequalities into politicization requires a kind of cultural intervention. Literary forms like Katha have played a significant role in this political process by narrating a slice of the larger complex reality. Contemporary Katha broadens its horizons by accommodating/ asserting multiple identities of society, with new writers from different social groups making a mark through Katha. The writers as well as readers are conscious about their subjective positions, and any attempt to bring them to a unified fold had resisted/countered. This can be seen in the bringing out of different anthologies of short stories and the controversies around the claims of ‘best story.’
This paper maps this politics of the contemporary Telugu Katha. It is an attempt to locate the history of Telugu katha in order to contextualize the politics of antholoization over a period of time. With the advent of print culture the literary and cultural forms of oppressive social groups such as Dalits, women, adivasis, Telangana, Muslims got marginalized and literary elite (happened to be brahminical class) managed to establish their social experience and their literary imagination as ‘the Telugu literature’ in whatever the form it may be. With intensified struggles of these submerged groups, there comes a new literary consciousness with the emergence of middle classes from these sections. It will focus on how the struggles of society marked the literature, and especially in contemporary times from the decades of late eighties. On the one hand they are resisting the brahminical hegemony and on the other questioning the existing abstract idea of ‘class’ and ‘progressive’ literature by enriching their literature with the concrete life experiences/struggles. This paper argues that there is a need to redefine progressiveness contextually by explaining through diverse claims of best short story in telugu literature. It concludes that the methods of evaluation of the best story has to be changed by considering specificity of the problems faced by particular social group and their unique style of expression rather generalizing.
History of Telugu Short story
Literature is a creative rational knowledge generated by an individual/author about collective/society. Society is a collective of heterogeneous human beings and this heterogeneity depends on number of factors such as class, caste, gender, ethnicity, region, and religion etc. It may become acts as a source of knowledge where the individuals or authors usually reflects upon.[1]
In Telugu literature, story has an important role as a literary articulation and political expression. There is an opinion that modern story in Telugu began in 1910, with a story named ‘Diddubatu’ by Gurajada Apparao. Infact, Telugu story is as old as the language itself. It is in oral form. Written literature marginalized this kind of tradition of story telling. Till date the stories in oral tradition have survived though narrative techniques/forms underwent many changes. Telugu society has rich oral narrative tradition of story telling like any other society. There are many stories narrated by illiterate men/women in the backdrop of their social and political situation. The same story is transmitted from one generation to other reflecting the changing social conditions. There are many stories by nameless authors in circulation even today. Rather one may say that the author of the story is a social collective. One such grand story telling tradition is identified with ‘Pedarasi Peddamma Kathalu’(Poor old woman’s stories). Usually the illiterate grand women folk telling stories to young children in leisured nights starting every story with, ‘once upon a time there was a pedarasi peddamma’. It signifies the stories of poor people narrated from their social experiences. To make their stories impressive, story tellers invents different narrative techniques spontaneously. These stories unified with creativity, spontaneity, personal reflections on social conditions, inauguration of self and entertainment. This oral literature gives the sense of belongingness of a community and also acts as a source of collective wisdom. This rich story telling tradition of poor people got marginalized after the emergence of written literature. In simple words, print culture has negated space for marginalized cultures. In fact the emergence of literary elite even institutionalized the readers’ tastes too. (It is brahminical .)
The stories prior to modern times are mostly confined to traditional life (lives of the past) and history. The unique character of modernity is its realistic nature and it is contemporary. Modern story as part of fiction emerged with the influence of western liberal education and industrialization. The background for any story is its society. We can say story is a social document. It contains the social, economical and political history of a society. Generally story revolves around an incident or a problem or psychological state or about a character. In Telugu society, the writers moulded the story as a social experience rather mere literary phenomenon. In nineteenth and twentieth century writers of Europe, Russia and America preferred to be their stories as snapshots. On the other hand, nations like India had its pre modern narrative techniques. It is predominantly folkloristic. It undergoes constant change. The early story writers caught in a conflicting situation. One way the nativist tradition and other hand imitation of modern story of west. In Indian stories especially telugu literature has the unique feature of balancing the life styles of both rural and urban settings.’ The greatness of the Telugu story is a narration of balancing of folklore and stories emerged after the print culture. Styles are in the process of modernization of the life experiences of different artisan communities, dalits, adivasis.[2]
Till the end of first world war, story has no place among literates of Telugu literary world though its origin is as old as human history itself. Unlike poetry, novel, play, essay, short story had no importance. The reason might be it doesn’t help in capturing the life in detail and it is not a useful instrument in realizing the social purpose of the times. But it is helpful in reaching the heights of form. From its early times (1919) story got its importance in appreciation of form. The very entry of short story pushed aside all other popular literary genres. Short story got its popularity mainly through newspapers. Earlier literature is confined to few sections of the society. But the news papers democratized the literary atmosphere. The news papers are instrumental in introducing many writers to Telugu society. The advent of Bharati a literary magazine in 1942 brought a host of able story writers into light but the magazines that reached the masses for the first time was the Vinodini. The magazine created more story writers on one hand and more readers on the other. The success of Vinodini led to the advent of several magazines and all of them published short stories in the wake nationalist awakening that influenced Telugu literature, there was the impact of Bengali literature among the short story writers that made name before second world war, are Tripuraneni Gopichand, Palagummi Padmaraju, Buchibabu, Gokhale, Karunakumara. After the war there have been more short story writers than ever before. The advent of several new magazines, including a few, popular weeklies, has been the main cause for it. Two world wars influenced the world a lot and so the Telugu society. The post war period has witnessed significant change in literary outlook. Writers have come under the influence of socialist ideals and Marxism. The progressive movement, which came to India in about 1935, spread to Andhra in 1943. As a result progressive writers association was formed. The earlier writers were inspired by ideas of freedom and nationalism which germinated on account of nationalist struggle. Now it was the turn of the socialist ideas to influence the younger generation. The progressive writers tried their level best to achieve realism. The realistic literature became universal phenomenon in Telugu literature. But the writers failed to take their socialist ideals in concrete life situations.
Early modern telugu story internalized the oral tradition and ideology of modernity (1910).In the period of 1920-29, telugu society influenced by nationalist movement. On one hand it raised the question of freedom and individual personality and on the other hand set an ideal for collective social action. Chalam and Chinta Deekshitulu are representatives of this period. Chalam’s stories exposed the social morality of traditions, Karunakumara depicted the rural life and Ma Gokhale wrote stories about the suffering masses. In the period 1930-39 stories of Chalam, Viswanatha, Sripada Subramanya Sastry, Malladi Ramakrishna Sastri. This is the period of social turmoil. The issues related to untouchability and caste, women’s problem and freedom and made an attempt to outlining the ideal from the perspectives of both tradition and modernity. In the period 1940-44, the Telugu writers influenced by second world war and intensified nationalist struggles. Along with anti-colonial ideology, it also generates the questions within nationalist movement. i.e. stories of Viswanatha and Sarada.1944-49 is the period India got freedom and it is a time of Telangana liberation struggle got intensified. Marxism started influencing the writers of Telugu society. Writers started writing with class consciousness, i.e. Chaso, Sarada. And some of the writers searching the psychological explanations of individual behaviour. i.e. Buchibabu. In 1950-59 reflects the changes of Telugu society after the second world war. The stories depicted the transformation of village towards modern society i.e. Sree Sree and Kodavatiganti Kutumbarao. There are different kind of writers interested in more philosophical questions and moved towards metaphysics in search of solutions for crisis-ridden individual existence. i.e. Palagummi Padmaraju, Buchibabu and Gopichand. 1960-69 is a turning point in Indian social life and politics. This is the time of political decentralization. Many new writers came into the scene. The moral questions raised by earlier generation of writers demanded an explanation from social, economical and political life, i.e Kaleepatnam Ramarao, Rachakonda Viswanatha Sastry. Many women writers started writing i.e. P. Sreedevi, Illendula Saraswatee Devi. The period 1970-79 influenced by Naxalite struggle of Srikakulam, the tribal revolt and formation of Revolutionary writers association as a consequence. This sets the new revolutionary life in stories, i.e. Bhushanam. In 1980-89, new writers like Allam Rajaiah, Volga, Namini Subrahmany Naidu, Boyi Jangaiah, K.N.Y. Patanjali, Mahendra. They tried to capture the multifaceted personality and social life of individual. Most of the writers had the conviction that one’s own experience should be the basis for understanding the meaningfulness of life. In 1990-94, there is a curiosity among the writers to tell the story in novel way. They are after invention of style of the story to reach out their readers effectively. This is the period of identity politics are very much influenced the literature. Altogether sets the new canons and standards in literature by dismissing the social positions and privileges of earlier celebrated writers. The question of authenticity and representation debated well in defining or narrating the story.[3]
Politics of Literature
From the decade of eighties onwards witnessed various social and political struggles in Telugu society. Some of the prominent political movements are intensified Naxalite struggles, dalit, women and separate Telangana struggles. These struggles influenced the literary and cultural movements too. Especially, literature is identified with these political movements. Politics and literature become inseparable. Within the alternative political struggles, different political positions emerged and so with the literature.
Prior to this phenomenon, the questions came out, what is literature? For whose one has to write? As an out come of this debates, Abhyudaya Rachayatala Sangham ( Progressive writers association, popularly known in Telugu as Arasam) and later Viplava rachayatala sangham(Revolutionary writers association, popularly known in Telugu as Virasam).These literary organizations came in support of political struggles and committed to communism. Mostly these literary organizations had set the standards of literature. Writers should be committed to political ideology and their writings should help in liberating the people from exploitation. Literature other than this kind is considered as reactionary, commercial and non-serious.
Over the period of time, the revolutionary literature become monotonous and mostly ends with the elevation of martyrs in the revolutionary struggle. It lost the grip over its readers. On one hand the situation demands in literature, new ways of dealing the social reality. And on the other hand, the struggles of dalits and women started contesting the politics of revolutionary struggles and these struggles providing new tools in understanding social reality. This is very much reflected in telugu literature. Any effort to see in unification is resisted.

Anthologies of Telugu Short Story
In sixties, telugu literary world is occupied by the novel. It is the time with the motive of profit making capital entered in the arena of publication work.[4] Bringing out short story collection is not a recent phenomenon. Some of the best stories came in Telugu katha 60-85, it is the land mark in the history of anthologies of short stories. This came with the editorship of Vasireddy Naveen and got published by Hyderabad Book Trust. Apart from the Katha Sahiti, initially started in cities/towns and extended to mandals. Vedagiri communications, Vahini Book Trust from Hyderabad, Visala Sahitya Academy from Jagityala, Rama Publications which is known for bringing out the dalit stories from Ananthapuram, Jesta literary trust from Vizag, Vanguri Foundation of America from abroad came with some anthologies of short stories. Futher, Visalandhra, Prajasathi Publications and literary organizations like Virasam and Janasahiti too edited some volumes of short stories. Kaleepatnam Ramarao initiated a reference library exclusively for short stories in the name of Kathanilayam at srikakulam. After the very beginning of this Katha series of kathasahiti generated debate about short story and many anthologies of stories came into existence, Kathavedika, Katha sravanthi series, Katha-patrika and the number of publications of short stories got increased’[5].The competition in the everyday social life and mental make up of struggle for success, not allowing the readers to spend time in reading novels. As a consequence Katha again got its prominence’[6].

In this context, anthologies of short stories under the editorship of Papineni Shivasankar and Vasireddy Naveen got the public attention. Vasireddy Naveen worked for some time as editor for Janasahiti, a left wing magazine. As Vallampati Venkatasubbaiah, the literary critic opinioned that in case of assessing strength and taste of short story anthology of Kathasahiti series, these two are ideal combination. As he acknowledged that Vasireddy had the background of the ideology of struggles(Marxist ideology) to understand the short story. Where as Papineni Sivasankar had the academic rigor in terms maintaining objectivity, and value of the content of the story.’[7] These two are identified with broad progressive politics and belong to upper caste Kamma. They get financial support from Telugu Association of Northern America (TANA) publish this yearly short story series. From the year ninety onwards, every year they used to bring out the selected ‘best’ Telugu short stories from published in various magazines and news papers in that year.[8] Many of the writers started feeling prestigious to publish in Katha series and created a competition among them. Some of the writers are exclusively writing by using all their literary efforts to get published in that series. However, Katha series got institutionalized and faced lot of criticisms from different corners in the course of time.
Consciously or unconsciously there are many attempts to resist the institutionalization of Kathasahiti and its notion of best story in the light of respective alternative political struggles. Virasam tried to redefine ‘revolutionary story’ in the wake of dalit and women struggles. It brought the short stories collection in the name of Katha Keratalu (2001), selected stories from 1989 to 1999.Fifty stories are in this collection. They mentioned in the introduction that these stories are essentially about people and their struggles. These stories are literary reflection of the crisis ridden and conflicting decade that responsible for many changes, struggles, sacrifices and for the rise of new questions. These are the stories of the life transforming from one stage to other qualitatively.’[9] Out of fifty stories only two stories of this volume are appeared in Kathasahiti series, i.e. Allam Rajaiah’s Atadu and Karuna’s Tayamma Katha.
Sahitimitrulu of Vijayawada brought a story collection with the same name Katha, Smayamu- Sandharbhamu. The importance of this collection seems to resist the institutionalization and monopolization of Kathasahiti. They picked up ten stories of the year 2000. Along with the story, it included the context of their story given by the writer and an analysis of a story by a critic. Most of these writers stories are regularly appear in katha series. Four out of ten stories are in Kathasahiti’s Katha2000 i.e. R.M.Umamaheswara Rao’s Norugalla Aadadi, Mahammad Khadher Babu’s New Bombay Tailors, Gopini Karunakar’s Kanugapula Vana, Kuppili Padma’s Instant Life.
In the same time Yemesco Publishers brought a story collection named Vandella Telugu Katha(2001), An anthology of 20th century representative stories under the editorship of China Veerabhadrudu.

Politics of ‘Best Story’
The production of best story invariably related to publishing, political ideology and reception of story by its readers. In telugu literature, story emerged as an important and promising genre by internalizing the social life, politics and techniques or styles of narration from the decade of nineties. There are many attempts in defining the best story in this period. Political ideology played a role in an attempt to define the best story. One such attempt is katha series brought out by Kathasahiti. This series got popularity and institutionalized for publishing the volume of best stories of particular year regularly. For them financial resource is not a serious problem since most of its expenditure met by the non resident Telugus, especially from TANA. Kathasahiti set the competition among the writers to get the attention of this series. The question here is what kind of stories attracted by the editors of these series. The answer has the implication in defining the best story in Telugu. As they told in their introduction, they are after ‘good’, ‘realistic’, ‘serious and sincere depicting the social experience’, ‘heterogeneity/multiplicity’ and ultimately ‘having a balancing style’. This may accommodate any story without concerning the political stand of the writer. Both from left to conservative camps faced the challenge in selection of story. Ultimately there exists a danger in ending up this series of best stories which are not touched by the issues of caste, gender, region, class exclusively.

Time and again debated in Telugu literature, what is the best story. The discussion between Kodavatiganti Kutumba rao and Palagummi Padmaraju concluded that to be a story first it requires form, second realistic nature and third, the purpose in relation to truths of life.’[10] In question of best story is debated Telugu literary society in late nineties. Different story collections came with their own political markings. The question of inclusion and exclusion is the primary contesting point. This is the time that Telugu story reached celebrated heights both in content and form. ‘For any anthology has a priority arena and had a specific literary value. Since for any anthology comprises of selection and exclusion of some stories, so that maintains its own political value.’[11]
In the context of celebration of Telugu story in contemporary times, there are many efforts from the writers and critics to caricature the best story. To standardize their political interest they become editors of the story collections. It generated the controversy on the reasons for exclusion or inclusion of particular story in that collection. However, it generated interest and discussion on literary genre story. The question of what is the best story is not resolved and made further difficult and each one gave their own interpretations. There is no agreement on the best story. One’s own political perspective is ultimately determining the fate of best story.
Kathasahiti with a moderate and broad progressive outlook tries to establish the idea of best story. The editors made a conscious effort to define best story through the publication of selected stories. The process got institutionalized and so the best story. In the name of best story editors of Kathasahiti established their own notion of best story. As one literary critic pointed out, the people who are going through the story collections of Kathasahiti from Katha 90 to Katha 96, the definition of best story become inidentifiable. By celebrating the idea of good day for story, there is a conscious and visible attempt to make a story a stuff beyond space, time and class.’[12]

The main criticism against this Katha series and its editors is on the question representation of ideology. There is a strong opinion that these editors represent the leftist ideology. Some of the critics supported them for the ideology they representing, but some of the critics felt that there is a possibility of best stories which are not necessarily represents the leftist ideology. They advised the editors to include other stories apart from representing the leftist ideology.
Jampala V.Choudhary, non resident Indian (NRI) who is interested in Telugu literature expressed his suspicion, the reason for many stories belongs to leftist ideological consciousness are in these volumes is that the editors representing that particular ideology. He made his point by saying that best stories were not necessarily to represent the leftist ideology. He had the opinion that the all the stories which are publishing in this Katha series are not necessarily best stories. Some of the stories are not reached the standards to publish in this series. He criticized the Kathasahiti for not including such a great story Mithunam written by Sriramana.’[13] Sriramana’s writings represent the non-leftist ideology. One kind nostalagic hindu ideology. The story is about the loneliness and mutual sharing and care of an old Brahmin couple where all their children living abroad or away from them. Seela Verraju, short story writer the editors belongs representing leftist ideology and selection of stories accordingly may help the critics in selection of the stories but it is not belittle the standards of this Katha series.[14] Amarendra, writer and literary critic felt that writers who are committed are of four kinds. The first category of writers, those who are narrating their experiences to others. The second category explains the philosophy of life that emerged from their experiences and readings. These two categories are individual centred. The third category belongs to the writers who anticipating change in the world. They are reform oriented. And the fourth category are legitimize the change in the society. This kind of writers needs ideological clarity and courage to stand against consequences to fight against the system. In Kathasahithi volumes mostly finding the stories belongs to fourth category is not accidental. That reflects the commitment of the editors. He too expresses that the not limiting themselves to the last category, they may give preference to others categories. There is possibility of having best stories!’[15]
Vallampati Venkatasubaiah reacting on this issue argues that it is true that there are many stories representing the leftist ideology. In the literary world not only the content of the story but also aesthetics are emerges only from contemporary life. In contemporary times, life is in such a way influenced by the leftist ideology, and there is best literature is producing from it, is natural to many stories from leftist ideology represented in these Kathasahiti series. He further cautioned the editors, the stories which don’t have balance in form and content, and there is no proper objectivity-that stories could not be best stories though they have influenced by leftist ideology.’[16] He explained that there are many stories in these anthologies which are individualistic and anti left stories and the stories not at all influenced by leftist ideology.
The non-leftist ideology dubbed in the name of human relationships by some of the writers and critics. Chekuri Ramarao, literary columnist and critic argues that there are many stories in these anthologies that go beyond the political beliefs of these writers. In fact these editors are very much after the stories of healthy human relations. Abburi Chayadevi, the short story writer too felt for including the stories that captures the crisis in human relationships.
N. Venugopal, literary critic and a member of Revolutionary Writers Association (Virasam) pointed out heterogeneity without any criticism is no way either acceptable or helpful. Sometimes there is enormous heterogeneity that no helping the refinement of people’s life and even the writer too may narrate marvelously. But in enlighten the readers consciousness, that story may not have any value. The stories which selected in this series with the idea of multiplicity reflected in this way. These kinds of stories go against the standards set by the editors of these particular anthologies. As the editors kept the standards in defining the best story, ‘seriousness’, ‘good’, reflecting the life in realistic fashion than misrepresenting, ‘enriching the life experiences and refining personality’, ‘integrity of form’. The stories in the name of heterogeneity/multiplicity could not come under this category of ‘best story’. One may give any definition for the best story when the deviation from the standards set by themselves.’[17]
Bhamidipati Jagannatharao who responded from the point of post modernism, hints the editors change their ideological perspective. This is the time to change their perspective rather holding rigid political framework. The historical necessity of the day is feminist, dalit and minority literature to come on the basis of gender, caste and religion.’[18] M.Sreedhar and Alladi Uma too are critical about the ideological perspective of editors and their story collections. After getting the popularity and the organization got institutionalized, the stories which are not satisfying their taste used to get rejected by them. These anthologies mostly reflected the themes of globalization and changes in society and values, changing agrarian relations of the village, pressure of market forces, complexity, conflict and changing human relationships of modern life. Though they have the stories reflecting the problems of women, dalits and regional disparity but they are not got much importance as above said themes. It seems the writers had a low opinion about these kinds of stories. It seems pre established opinions of the editors in case form and language are not allowing many stories under their consideration. In the context where many problems relating to lower strata of women, dalits and regions are surfacing, it demanding space for the importance of narratives, and autobiographical stories.’[19][20]

Redefining ‘Progressiveness’
The way out for this kind of situation can be seen by identifying these editors as belongs to ‘broad left’ .This may be partially true, but one has to see the context that these editors set in. So far the stories for a period of decade from 1990-2000, are primarily changing land relations, crisis in human relationships and effects of globalization. In the language of the left, it is ‘economic contradictions’. Conservative politics too got space in the name of ‘human relationships’ or ‘heterogeneity’. The stories represented in these collections may met the standards set by the editors in terms of seriousness, good in both content and form and realistic representation of life experiences from the writers point of view. There is no dispute about this in identifying as best story. Though these people claims as leftist, there is serious dissent from radical left, particularly from Revolutionary Writers Association (popularly known as Virasam) both in politics of selection and defining of best story. It is evident that most of the writers from Virasam withdraw their stories from this story competition. On the other the stories depicting the armed class struggle are having no place in these collections. The Kathasahiti is not interested to explicit narration of armed struggles. They expect soft politics or politics narrated through their stories in much abstraction. The stories of Virasam writers are rejected on the basis of poor style. The Virasam felt that revolutionary literature is the only people’s literature. Literature should help in prepare and conscientizing the people towards class struggle. Keeping this view they brought the Kathakeratalu, the revolutionary stories of a period 1990-2000.It is not only resisted the Kathasahiti and tried to define the story for the liberation of exploited people. Kathakeratalu too take the note of changing notion of class in the context of feminist and dalit struggles, rather rigid to stick up their earlier conception of class.

The decade of nineties in telugu literature is got influenced by the struggles of Dalits, women and people of underdeveloped regions of Andhra. It has provided new language to telugu literature. They brought the literature into concrete life experiences. They declared their life as a literary piece. Their life is a testimony for literature. It needs no certificate of authentication from others. Their literary expression sometimes may appear raw, and had no sophistication. They may not be mastered in terms of technique or style as upper caste/male/Andhra writers in terms of cultural capital. As Alladi Uma pointed out most their writings are autobiographical forms. On the other hand, all these struggles are against the mechanical application of class. They focused more on bringing change in social and cultural sphere. It doesn’t mean that their struggles are not having economic implication. But the people who claims themselves as ‘progressive’(this may read as anti-dalit, anti-womem, and anti-telangana) had low opinion about these struggles( based on the non-seriousness, state submissiveness character of these struggles).These struggles may not well organized like class struggles led by Naxalite parties, but the questions raised by these groups are serious. However, progressiveness of Kathasahiti is not serious in considering the stories of this category. Kathasahiti may feel there is problems with the politics and resolutions of these stories. In Katha97, Vallampati Venkatasubaiah wrote an essay on the stories of that year; this is bad time for the story and certified that he didn’t find any good story in that year. This can be understood as the entry of many dalit and women writers and started writing stories. Kathasahiti has no other way except to publish these stories. The editors may have compliant that though they are sympathetic to these issues but their stories had in bad form and no innovative style or narrative technique. So it is obvious to conclude that much of these kind of stories were not included in their kathasahiti.
Against this kind of literary hegemonization, we find many collections of short stories. In the same time appeared many story collections in telugu by individual writers and organizations. The stories came with certain political purpose. The stories are identified with particular literary movements. Literature goes along with respective social movements. Liberation is the underlying principle of these struggles. The emerged intellegensia of related social group responded to the struggles and gave literary articulation to their problems. They used literature as an effective tool in sharing their politics in civil society. It is obvious that the stories are categorized as Dalit, Feminist, Telangana, Rayalaseema stories. Some of the story collections comes under this kind are – womens stories by Volga Rajakeeya Kathalu, Kuppilipadma’s Muktha and dalit stories by Yendlui Sudhakar’s Mallemoggala Godugu , Nagappagari Sundararaju ‘Madigodu kathalu’, Gundedappu Kanakaiah’s Dalit stories, B.S.Ramulu Smrithi. , Dalit Kathalu series by K. Laxminarayana ,and region specific stories like Seemakathalu, Nagavali Kathalu, Vamsadhara Kathalu ,and Muslim stories of Khadeerbabu’s Dargamitta kathalu. Apart from these story collections there are many young writers came with a fulfillment of this mission. Most of the individuals brought their story collections with their own financial resources. Most of the times the conscious group emerged from particular social group because of ongoing social struggles and it provides the courage to the writers to publish their stories. The social struggle guarantees the readership and financial support from concerned social group. However, writers of this kind, has to face financial crisis relatively in comparison with Kathasahiti in publishing their work.
Under these circumstances, it is difficult to define the best story. The very definition of best story is linked up with the politics it represented. In fact, the contemporary social struggles dismantled the notion of best story acceptable to all. There we find no neutral readers as well as writers. The best story for one may not be necessarily best for other unless until there emerged a universal category. The universal category that internalized all these diverse politics sincerely has only qualification to judge the best story. But telugu society is till not reached this stage.


[1] Society is a collective of heterogeneous human beings and this heterogeneity depends on number of factors such as class, caste, gender, ethnicity, region, and religion etc. It may become acts as a source of knowledge where the individuals or authors usually reflects upon. In other words, individuals will always have multiple identities. The conditions make him to push up one of the identities for the emancipation in which he feels discomfort or problematic and at the same time thinks about the identity which can bring the individual as collective. In other words, individuals will always have multiple identities. The conditions make him to push up one of the identities for the emancipation in which he feels discomfort or problematic and at the same time thinks about the identity which can bring the individual as collective. In a society, the access to natural resources is some individuals are denied either naturally or socially. The denial of access, restricts the individuals to a particular set of social relations which create discomfort in the individual and forces it to struggle against such restrictions and change the oppressive relations. During these periods of discomfort, the society sends signals of unrest demanding a change in the social relations of the society. This discomfort in the society is variably called contradiction, problem, or disharmony of the society. In such a state of discomfort, the individual or the author becomes an observer and assess the objective reality. The author in its role as a subject, evaluates the society in a two step process, namely subjective perceptions and their abstractions. So that the author can construct a model of society in the mental space, improve the model and recreates the model of society in such a way that original discomfort by which it was influenced, is removed. This creative ideal/model takes the form of a story, a novel, a poem or a song and introduced back into the society. The author can receive/ select a particular signal and create a story such that solution is offered. A story has a purpose first to highlight the problem/discomfort and then offer a creative solution, if possible, at the end. The story may influence its readers either to numb, or to entertain or to activate him in particular direction that depends on the world view of the author. To be conscious of his/her subjective position or in assessing the society/objective world, the struggles around him will influence him/her.

[2] Chinaveerabadhrudu,Vadrepu Vandella Telugu Katha p.10

[3] As the renowned Telugu writer and scholar, Kodavatiganti Kutumbarao confessed that ‘I belong to a modest middle class. With that modesty I can write progressive writings but could not create people’s literature and working-class literature. So my writings could not inspire the masses and class. But among middle class, it brings transformation in favor of people’s life. To be a success, a great story writer depends on how far s/he succeed in this regard.’ ( Kutumbarao, Kodavatiganti Naa Katha Rachana, In Sahitya Vyasalu Viplava Rachayatala Sangham, A.P. : May 2001 p.160)

Kodavatiganti Kutumbarao in 1935 had an observation that, Telugu story has to develop a lot and needs a assertion of strong ideological point than to day. Further all the stories revolving around Brahmin families. In the stories written about samsarlu (other non-brahmins) finds exaggerated lies and misrepresentations. Moreover, writers are not coming to give special importance to these problems. But Telugu society is not confined itself to brahmins and graduated youth. The primay business of telugus is not even love making of men and women .But most of the stories reflecting only this trend. The reason for this is writers are not aware much of social life from all the directions.’ (Ibid. koku. Katharachana , sahitya vyasalu p.187 )

4 It is the time with the motive of profit making capital entered in the arena of publication work. There came even new magazines to suit the interest of leisured class and many novels came in the form of serials. In place of values of life, struggle and social contradictions individual’s dissatisfaction and the dream world of youth become the subject of these writings. in the course of time, crime and sex occupied this commercial literature. In this kind of atmosphere, the space for telugu katha got marginalized.’[4] Though the fans of short story had the feeling of Telugu katha in 1960s and 70s is in crisis. This opinion is registered may be because of the celebration of commercial novel. Though the news papers are not given importance to story and many well established senior writers stopped writing stories, Telugu katha has not collapsed totally. Exactly at this time many young writers started writing stories’.

[5] Ravibabu, Kathapalli in Katha99, p.231

[6] Ibid.231

[7] Venkatasubbaiah, Vallampati In Katha 99 p.233

[8] There are many best stories got rejected by the publishers of news papers and magazines will have automatically excluded in its consideration in Kathasahiti series.
[9] Rajayya, Allam, A.Appalnaidu, T.Sreenivasa Murthy, Bhammidi Jagadheeswara Rao (Ed.)Viplava Rachayatala Sangham Katha Keratalu Virasam Kathalu (1989-1999) Virasam:January 2001 P. v-vi

[10] Kutumbarao, Kodavatiganti Naa Katha Rachana, In Sahitya Vyasalu Viplava Rachayatala Sangham, A.P. : May 2001 p.160 Koku , Uttamakatha , Sahitya Vyasalu p.212

[11] Chinaveerabhadrudu, Vandella telugu katha, eirayallo satabdi pratinithi kathala sankalanam, Vijayawada: Yemesco, 2001, p.7

[12] Venugopal, N. Katha Sandarbham Hyderabad: Swecha sahiti, 2000 p.75

[13] Chodhary, Jampala V. Oka Dasabdapu Telugunadu katha In Katha 99 p.216

[14] Seelaverraju p.221

[15] Amarendra, Kathasahiti sankalanala gurinchi In Katha 99 p.233

[16] Venkata subbaiah, vallampati Katha 99 p.234

[17] Venugopal, N. Vimarsanatmaka abhinandana, Katha99 p.219

[18] Jagannatharao, Bhamidipati Katha99 p.226

[19] Sreedhar,M. and Alladi Uma Eesankalanalu anuvadakulaku bangaruganulu In Katha 99 p.229