Monday, November 12, 2007

Dalit Literary Narratives and Liberation Theology:
‘Naraloka Prathana’ of Madduri Nagesh Babu

Dr.P.Kesava Kumar

The relation between dalit’s life and religion very complex and has been debated very often. This has reflected in both scholarly writings and literary works. Dalits being the oppressed people of India has adopted different strategies to overcome the suffering and humiliation faced by them in the every day life. Dalit’s identification with religion has to be understood in the historical context as it has many meanings. On one hand, dalits are involved with many movements of reformed Hinduism. On the other, Dalits are converted in a large scale into Christianity from colonial times. There are occasions that the dalits were even converted to Islam as in the case of Nizam state. In the post independent India, under the leadership of Ambedkar, the indigenous religion Budhism becomes the religion of dalits as a protest against Hinduism. Apart from this conversions, Marxism as a theory is critical about the very idea of religion, by considering it as the opium of the masses and the soul of soul less. Ambedkar not only counter the Marxism in this regard and favors Budhism by projecting it as humanistic religion in contrast to other religions like Christianity, Hinduism and so on. Ambedkar follows the American pragmatist, John Dewy, who argues for democratic ‘religious’ life against the institutionalized dogmatic religion. However, dalits life has rooted into diverse religious faiths in contemporary situation.
From late eighties, Dalit movement in Andhra as a socio- political movement came into forefront, in the backdrop of Karamchedu and Tsundur massacres. Dalit movement politicizes the social suffering by asserting the identity of Dalit in all possible ways. The social imagination of the Dalit writers captured the very concerns of dalits through their literary narratives. They are unanimous in voicing against the caste ridden Hinduism by following Ambedkarism and have posed different positions to counter this. In response to the rise of militant hindu nationalism and its attacks on Christians in late nineties, some of Dalit writers addressed this in their writings. Moreover, most of the dalits were nurtured in Christianity as result of colonial rule. Dalit writers realized that to build political struggles, needs a cultural strength in which dalits are rooted. There are some writers consciously worked out in this direction by identifying with Christianity. Madduri Nagesh babu is a classic example for this. He is the major Dalit writer and authored many books. The poems mostly written in the fag eng of his life reflected in his Naraloka Parthana (2002) represents the Dalit liberation theology. His Dalit liberation theology goes in tune with Black and Latin American liberation theologies. His liberation theology is committed for the rights and justice of the dalits. His liberation theology suited in contemporary Dalit movement. His Jesus differs from the orthodox Christianity and his Jesus is Dalit who is with dalits for the protection of rights and dignity of the community. His god is political, assertive and fights for the social justice. My paper not only explores the strength of Dalit liberation theology and also finds the limitation of this kind of theology in relation to Dalit movement.

Dalits, Religion and Ambedkar
In human history religion has multiple functions. Religions evolved through human societies. Religion has always has a contentious point in many occasions. In the conflicts between ‘tradition and modernity’, ‘religious and secular’, ‘irrational and scientific’, ‘conservative and revolutionary’ – religion has placed central in all its discourses. As a result, religion has not only endures from past and also undergone into many changes with changing times. There is no doubt that religion carries tradition and culture and offers specific value system. In simple terms, it regulates human life. Whenever human beings and their societies are under crisis and facing uncertainty, then the idea of God and religion becomes powerful. Where the power of reason ends, there the faith in God emerges so powerful. Naturally, for the poor and weak people, religion meets as their social imagination as a way out from suffering and everyday oppression. On the other hand, rich people, weather it is feudal or capitalist class used religion as an instrument to exploit the masses. Invocation of religion helps in maintaining the status quo. It reveals that same religion has different meanings based on the identification of social agency or community.
Dalits in India are poor and exploitated by the dominant castes/classes in all possible ways .They are victims of the caste system. Their freedom often got restricted. Their access to resources, knowledge and public space got denied for centuries. They are discriminated, insulted and humiliated in the name of caste. The Hindu social order keeps them forever subordinate to the brahminical forces. The Hindu religion through its philosophy and social practices committed to maintain the hierarchical, discriminatory and exploitative and inhuman system. Against this, there are many struggles took place in different forms in different times. In modern times, Ambedkar emerged as a powerful philosopher and political leader to philosophize the Indian social reality from Dalit perspective and led different struggles to liberate dalits from the clutches of the caste system. As a pragmatic thinker, for this he has opted many strategies for the emancipation of dalits. Religion has focused by the Ambedkar as one of the identity for the emancipation of dalits.
Ambedkar’s philosophy is essentially ‘ethical’ and ‘religious’. He worked out social relations and politics from the point of morality. His idea of democracy based on the principles of equality, liberty and fraternity, which are derived from the Budhism. His conception of religion is humanistic rather authoritative and God centered. His religion is civilized rather antique religion. His religion is rationalistic rather based on irrational faith. His religion is democratic rather discriminatory. He is concerned more about the philosophy of religion rather than mere religion. He has seen the source for politics and law in the religion, which is moral. The pragmatic thinker, John Dewey, and the British intellectual and conservative thinker Edmund Burke influenced him to place religion in political discourse. Among the historical religions, he considered the indigenous and humanistic religion Budhism as the ideal for dalits against the dominant brahminical Hinduism, after weighing down all other options. In this connection he placed Budhism as spiritual value for mankind requires rather the materialistic socialism. However, he appreciated the ends of both Marxism and Budhism are same, only means differs.

Dalit literature and Religion

Dalit literature came in response to the ongoing insults, humiliations, atrocities, oppression and exploitation taking place in the name caste. In the post independent times, Dalit writers came out from the newly emerged small Dalit middle class. They have started questioning the oppressive social relations marked by the brahminism and argued in favour of dignity, self respect and social justice. Literature used as a weapon to fight against the upper caste hegemony and their dominance. Dalit intellectuals negotiated their philosophical views to the larger society through the medium of literature than any other form. They are organic intellectuals in strict sense of Gramsci, having the elements of thinking and organizing the community as against the traditional brahminical intellectuals. In this sense Dalit literature has to be seen as the process in creation of counter hegemony against brahminical hegemony. Dalit literature has significant in many ways-culturally, historically and ideologically. Dalit literature enriched with content and description of dalit struggles for human dignity. There has been constant effort from dalit writers in translating the condemned life styles and practices of marginalised people into symbols of protest and pride. Dalit writers gave rich meaning to dalit life that brought respect for them. In the process of writing their own history, they thoroughly interrogated the existing histories of dominant caste/class groups in their literary writings. Dalit writer through his writings interrogates the brahminical past, which has the character of humiliation, atrocious for dalits. In addition to this, one may find social imagination of for the emancipation of Dalit community may be seen through their narratives. For Dalit writers philosophy of Ambedkarism is the inspiring force. Dalit writers are unanimous in fighting against the hindusm, which is responsible for the perpetuation of caste system. In providing the way out of collective suffering or to liberate Dalit masses from caste oppression, there emerge different political positions.
In other words, religion occupied the central place in the political discourse of the struggles of the dalits. Dalit writers identification with religion is complex in understanding as the case with dalits. In this situation, they are many claims on religion. Dalits religion and culture is different from hegemonic brahminical Hinduism. Their religion is most naturalistic than super natural, more democratic than authoritarian, more humane than oppressive. To certain extent, Kancha Ilaiah’s ‘why I’m not hindu’ may represent this position. The reformed Hinduism is the prominent position offered by Gandhi. He advocates hindusm of varnasramadhrama by reforming it by fighting against the practice of untouchability. As Ambedkar too initially made an attempt to reform the Hinduism and finds this is a wasteful effort. Later he made his mind to convert in to budhism, the indigenous religion after a careful evaluation. There is another position that goes against the very idea of religion itself by identifying it as a false consciousness. This is generally identified with the Marxist position. Apart from this, dalits are also converted into religion like Islam in the Nizam state and into Christianity in the time of British for the sake of human dignity and material benefits .
In the writings of upper caste people hindu religious world prominently reflects. As the nationalist movement is valorized by the brahminism, so it is the case with Brahmin intellectuals and writers. The project of reforming within Hinduism of Gandhi and outside the Hinduism by Ambedkar testifies different positions in the situation of nationalist movement. In tune with Gandhi, most of the brahminal nationalist intellectuals are worried about the dalits opting out of Hinduism and especially converting into Christianity. This could be seen in the upper caste writings of telugu in 1920s and 1930s.Unnava Laxminarayana’s novel ‘Malapalli , Sripada Subramanya Sastry’s stories like ‘Sagara sangam’(1931), Veluri Sivarama Sasrty’s story ‘Vyatyam’ and with slight difference Karunakumar’s ‘Polaiah’(1937). These writings could be understood in the context of large scale conversions of dalits into Christianity. These writers not not worried about the weakening of Hinduism and also very much concerned to depict British missionaries in negative light. Malapalli makes an attempt to convert dalits into Brahminpalle (Munipalle). Veluri’s vytyayam cries that dalits not to be prey to corrupt religious priest by converting into chritinity. Sripada declares that, ‘Chee kirastanee manchidi kadoch’ to mala and madiga couple who intended to convert into Christianity, which does not regonize the caste differences like mala and madiga. Karuna Kumara’s polaiah who pretend to be poulaiah(christian name) to rescue himself from the anger of sanatana Brahmin venkat sastry. In this one can see the elevation of untouchble converting into Christianity on different ground. ‘Nijanga veedukrayistuvude ayite manakantha pattimpu lene ledu.mana prabhuvula matham ade ayinappudu, aa mathanni nindiste prabhuvuni nindinchinatte. Na vishuh prudhvi pathih. Kabatti raju avalambinchina mathamlo kuda vishunsa vundi teeruthundi. Mana mathamlone kane, valla mathamlochendalurantu leneleru. Kani yetochee na sandeham yentante, veedu nijanga kristuvudena ani?’
There are many writings of dalits in relation to religion, from those who converted into Christianity and other religions in colonial and post colonial times. With the rise of Dalit movement of contemporary Dalit writings have different political dimension. Dalit writings reflect the assertion of dalits by resisting the brahminical hegemony and depicting the life and culture of dalits. The Hinduism rejunavating in the form of hindu nationalism started targeting Muslims and Christians in a systematic way. The late nineties writings of dalits reflected this situation by supporting the christainity in which they find the root in post independent india.

Dalit Dalanayakudu Madduri Nagesh Babu

Madduri Nagash babu is the major Dalit poet, belonging to Mala community, born to anasuyamma and Zachraiah from Narasaraopet of coastal Andhra. As a Dalit poet touches many issues of Dalit life and gave novel expression to many themes in Dalit literature. He wrote many poems on atrocities committed against dalits, caste oppression, institutionalized violence, critique of Cultural practices of caste hindu, valorization of democratic life of dalits and so on. He authored Velivada(1995),Rachabanda (1996), Loya (1997) , Meerevutlu(1998) Nishani(1995, With Varadaiah, Teresh Babu and Khaza), Naraloka Prarthana, collection of Dalit Christian poetry (Dec.2002), Godavari and Putta, a long poems published posthumously. He passed away from Dalit literary world from January 10, 2005.
The way he interpreted the Indian social reality from the Dalit perspective, offers many philosophical insights. Ideologically, he is a committed Ambedkarite. He has creatively interpreted the anbedkarism in changing situation of Telugu society rather dogmatic follower of Ambedkar. On one hand, he is critical about the brahminism and on the other hand, he exposed the contradiction within subaltern groups in relation to Dalits. Nagesh Babu gave political direction to dalits through his literary narratives. Women are generally considered as the oppressed as dalits. On the issue of Dalit women, he explains that Dalit women are different from other caste women and so their problems.[1]He is also critical about patriarchal attitude of Dalit men.[2] In most of upper caste progressive writings, farmer got attention in the time of globalization. While commenting on the fake suicide deaths of farmers, he asks why nobody talks about the everyday victim of farmer, the Dalit coolie.[3] In Nishani, he declares man as central principle to his poetry and inaugurates him as a manifesto of his peetry. Through Nishani along with other writers poetically declares war against the critics of Dalit literature and Dalit movement.[4] Generally writers from time immemorial romantics the love as if it doesn’t have any barriers.In the Vidi Akasam, Ambedkarist prema kavitvam , the edited volume exclusively on the issue of love, explores the caste tensions between the upper caste women and Dalit men, Dalit women and upper caste men. It emphasizes that caste matters for love. He wrote a hybrid poem along with a Brahmin writer Ranisivasankara Sarma, in the name of Ooru-Vaada. He is instrumental in bringing out the poerty of upper caste those who are sympathetic to the cause of dalits , in the name of Kaasta siggu padadam. His ultimate aim is to establish casteless and classless society.[5]

The ‘Putta’, the confession of a prodigal son, which came into light after his death believed to be written in 1994.He symbolically identifies Putta, where the snakes lives with brahminacal Hinduism. In this long poem he narrates the efforts of the snake to trap the Dalit into its fold in various ways by keeping him away from his own culture, life and value system. Ultimately, it makes him weak, alienate, dependent and subordinate to Hinduism. It keeps dalits in to a false prestiage and creates the situation that he can’t say him as a Dalit and in public consciously keeps away from his collective life and makes himself to feel ashame of his life.
In the Velivada , he is critical about the dominant Hinduism and its cultural practices on many occasions. Nadichinanta sepu panikochina cheppulu
Devalayalloki nattillaloki nochukoka (Charmakarudi dinacharya, Velivada, p.14)

Mammulni mee vedala kommalnunchi narikesinappatnuncho
Malamadiga pallelni meeru velivadalni chesinappatnuncho ( Velivada p.23 )

Vedakalam purvame avutaipoyi
Baribaita niluchunnanu nenu!
Dadapu aatanee dani anthahvyuhalnee
Aata astitvanne, avasaranne adhyayanam chesanu
Bathuku maidanamlo satabdala sadhananayyanu (Chedugudu, Velivada p.53)
He is also critical about the islam fundamentalists on the issue of declaring fatwa on Tasleema Nasreen. Oreyi mana pasi pillalu paluleka chachina sare
Manadesalu aakaliki alamatichina sare
Desala muladhanannanta eenamga prakatiddam!
Dani tala techinavadi mundu
Adapillanee ardha rajyalne kadu
Mana sirasulnee puluga paruddam1 eeloga
Aadamundalu aksharalu diddatam mathadrohamani
Oka phatwa jaree cheddam (Lajja, Velivada. P.45)

In the Meerevlu, he is critical about the atrocities taking place in the name of God. In the poem Devudi pellam on the issue of Mahadevamma: sivaratri jagaramlo/ayyagori vontloki demudenduku durindi/vadu na vontloki jorabadindaka ardhamkani Danni/dasaraki dora naaku kokaraika yenduku pettindo/vadu naguddaludadeesindaka telukoleka poyendanni (Devudipellam, Meerevutlu p.7 ).
Nagesh babu is critical about Dalit Brahmins in manypoems.Interestingly in the brahminism, he included the dalits identifying with the much respected identity as christains.

Yevaranna meerevarani adigite/ ‘cristians’ mani vothi vothi palakandi/ adi kuda keetha anukunte/mee ammalni aagam chesinolla sakhani cheppi keerthibavutalegaresukondi/macharapokunda tirupathi poyi gullukottinchukondi/mannasam lekundda sabarimalamutralai gavulu kottandi/ anteganee meeku danna pedatha/ ‘dalitulam’ani matramseppakandi/ma sigguboddi (Dalitabrahmanulako vinnapam, Meerevutlu p.94)

In the same collection he felt that we have not only love the neighbours like jesus, but it is necessity to be armed. Ika manam yesuprabulla preminchatame kadu/ ee lopayikaree lucipharlani dveshinchalsivndi/ mare mukyamga eppudu samadhanala avadhanalu kadu/oka sayudhanam avasaramga vundi (sayudhanam, Meerevutlu p.79)
In Loya, Krismas and Antyakreestu are interesting poems in relation to his identification with Christianity. In Krismas, he establishes that if jesus born, he will be born only among poor to liberate human beings from the beastly nature.
Kammukunna chekatlu chelchuku nallamessaya gontipputadu
Yeppudaina yesayya pasuvulapakalone pudutadu
Pasuvula sthyiki digajarchabadda manushilni vimochinchalikada!
Veladi tallula kadupukothani addukovalante
Tappadamma nee pegu tagalsinde ( krismas, loya p.12)
In Anthyakreestu, he is critical about the christain priest, who raped a minor girl in mogalturu of west godavari district :
Sakshttu tanamunde inta akrutyam jarigina
Kanesam ninnu budidayina cheyani nee devudunnade
Vadera aa pasidani mundu pradhama mudhayi !
Puttuke parabhavamaina o na chitti tallullara
Sahajangalu sapakarakalyna ona chitti bhugollallara
Randamma randi
Ee antyakrestulni siluveddam! ( Anthyakrestu , Loya)

Though he has written poems with the idiom of Christianity in his earlier writings, Naraloka prarthana exclusively came with a philosophy of Dalit liberation theology point of view. Naraloka Prathana, a collection of Dalit Christian poetry of Madduri Nagesh Babu has written in the context of ongoing attacks on Christians under the regime of rule Hindu nationalists. In the last week of January of 1999, a Christian missionary Dr. Graham Staines along with his two sons was burnt alive. In the early six months of the year 2000 itself, 48 attacks on Christians were recorder at various places. It is reported that in many places in India the churches and Christians are attacked by hindutva groups in a much organized way.[6]

Dalit Liberation Theology of Nagesh Babu

The liberation theology stresses the interrelatedness of differing structures of oppression and domination. The liberation theology, whether it is Dalit, black, feminist, or Latin American, is characterized by its distinctive viewpoint, but what they all share is a commitment to social justice. To some extent, all liberation theologies are situated in contemporary political struggles and movements. In the 1970s Latin American nations, liberation theology came in response to American imperialism and capitalist system. The poor people organized radical struggles through church. Black theology in the United States arose out of the civil rights and black power movements of the 1950s and 1960s. Important contributors to this literature are James H. Cone, J. Deotis Roberts, and Gayraud S. Wilmore. "In a racist society, God is not color blind," says James Cone. Also, if all humans were created in the image of God, it must not only mean that black people are created in God's image, as are whites, but also that "God is black." In a related sense, "blackness" is a category in black theology similar to that of "poverty" in Latin American liberation theology. To be black, or poor, is to be conscious both of one's oppression and of one's authentic humanity. Dalit theology typically includes the additional viewpoint that Jesus himself was Dalit or outcaste.
Madduri Nagesh Babu seems to be inspired by the liberation theology of Blacks and Latin Americans. He brings the issue of liberation from caste oppression as a focal point in his Naraloka prarthana. In thiskanneti prarthana, narakaloka prathana,okanoka dalita kavi rondo rakada,kreestunedu lechenu- hallelooya, dalita samsonu svagatham are written in the line of christain theology.The orthodox Christianity concern about Paraloka prarthana and his concern is more about the dalits of this world. As the Siva Sagar mentions in his foreword, this Dalit poet would not do paraloka prarthana. He will do naralika prarthana. That prayer will not do in the language of peddamanushulu.on this land likes to establish human kingdom, not the kingdom of god. He is Dalit Christian poet, Dalit Samson and untouchable Alexander.
Nagesh babu’s kanneti prardhana is a self explanatory poem for his potential critics like hindu rationaluists, pseudo Ambedkarists and dogmatic christain belivers and Marxists:

Kanneti prardhana- tama talalameeda devullaperlupettuku vuregutunna/ ee hindu hetuvadulanta/dalitakavitvamlo ee kriveekaranmemitani/nanahairana padite padochugaka/tama narnrana kulagajji krimulu pempakam chestunna/anekaneka ambedkaristulukuda/kulanirmulanalo ee kristonmadamemitani/dimmatirigi postumodern poratalu modalettochugaka./ nee padi aagnalni pakkana paresi/paralokamlo seetu maku rejarvayindani beeralu poye viswasulu kuda/ee hindu herodula golendira nayana ani khinnulai/nannoka Lucifer santhanamga prakatinchochugaka
Ayina … naa aasrayadurgama! Naa kota! Na konda!... paramavydyuda! /na gayanni nee chetulaku appaginchuchunnanu nayana!? Naa vedanaki nee chevyoggum prabhuva!

Ee pharola palana nundi mammuvidipinche/maka mahamojesni makai pampinchu prabhuva/ satabdala aakalitho aatmagouralemitho allademaku/mannani, mahraja simhasananni andinchu tandree/ee antaranitanapu yerrasamudranni rendugacheelchi/ ‘kularahita kananuku’ mammu nadipinchu nayana/ vyakthigata aastulundakudadani apostula dvara chesina nee acharanagaka/marx cheppinde mahonnata vakyamani parigette mammu manninchi/meshak shadrek abednagolanu smarinchina ambedkarki chesinatlu/ maa margam saralam cheyum tandree../maadaina nee rajyamunu stapinchumu. /aamen

In the poem of Naraloka prathana , Nagesh babu adds up the eleventh command to hate the his enemy:
mokaruni prardhalu cheese cheese paraloka sancharam chestunna manam
ika naralokaprarthanokati yudhabhashalo rachinchukundam
ninnuvale nee poruguvarini preminchamanatame payayithanamaina desamlo
‘satanuvale nee satruvuni dveshinchumu’ ans padakindo aagnanu
Manaku maname jaaree chesukundam randi

He further prays for the Dalita rajyam :
Rajyame maa kalala meeda nammakala meeda kavathu chestunnadi gana
Tvaraga mana rajyam vachunu gaka
Mee chittam maa manasulalo tappa
Maa batukullo neraveranivvani kashayi mukalni kadaterchumu
He is even critical to the chritian priests by saying that
Maa anudinaharam maakichina ivvaka poyina
Ollubalisi charcheello ammagarlane cherustunna kamadhenuvuluku matram
Aaharam ivvakum.

And finally he urges the god to give the knowledge of Ambedkar to liberate us :
Sodhanalu testunna ee dustulanu
Simhasanam nundi tappinchumu
Rayamu saktiyu maa kichi
Mee mahimanu bayulu parachukonumu…amen
Ee peeda nundi vimichinchimpagala ambedkar jnanam
Manandarilo velugondugaka…amen

Madduri Nagesh babu’s identification with religion is as complex as the Dalit life. As a Dalit, he is critical about religion either it is Hinduism, Islam or Christianity. His conception of religion coincides with the humanistic religion of Ambedkar. Like Ambedkar, he believed that political struggled has to be based on the foundations of cultural traditions of the people. In the post independent India, large number of dalits is converted into Christianity in coastal Andhra. Christianity got localized and established a different kind of community life. Most of the dalits are forced to live in a confused situation since the dalits belongs to Christians have no benefits of reservations. Dalit movement from late eighties gave the strength to the Dalit masses to fight against the caste oppression by resisting the hindu dominance. Apart from the political struggle, Dalit movement gave new insights in constructing Dalit life from its own cultural life. The systematic attacks on the christains ( dalits) forced them to protect from the cultural/religious onslaught. At this historical juncture, liberation theology of Nagesh babu has its importance. This may help in mobilizing the christains for the larger Dalit movement by addressing the very existential problems. As the religion doesnot allow the people to question and is the same with christinity. The liberation theology not only makes the jesus, the Dalit and also plead/demand him to fight on behalf of them. This is more concerned about this every day world, where the dalits are sufferers and exploitated by the dominant castes/classes. Nagesh babu’s liberation theology is Dalit liberation theology and is definitely different from the christain theology.
On the other hand, religion, in whatever be the form, has the power to liberate the Dalit masses, is doubtful. There is no doubt that religion is useful as an emancipatory identity, but it is not ultimate solution for the dalits. Nagesh babu derived the liberation theology from black and latin American chritians. They have not only organized and mobilized their community for social justice, but also resisted the orthodox chritianity and Vatican church to certain extent. But in India, there are no significant struggles of such type. More over, Nagesh babu wrote these poems in the times, Dalit movement got weakened. There is a gap between Dalit movement and Dalit literature. The strength and weakness of these religious propositions will be proved in the light of radical Dalit movement.

End Notes
[1] Nagesh Babu, Madduri. Okeparidhi- Vandal Prameyalu, Loya. p.130 neevuruki/navadaki/chana chana duram vundi talli/inni duralunna desamlo/inni daralunna addupade samajamlo/ nadi odduna kukoni nuvvu/sudugundamlo allade natho/maniddaram okatante yetta kuduruddi

[2] ---. Maariyaa, Meerevultu p.120 . In this poem he condemns the rape of Mariyamma by a Dalit youth in Kollipara village of Guntur district.

[3]----- Tirakasu, Meerevutlu , on fake sucides. Ninnedo yennmukani jesi polikekalestunna ee janavanta/neekuvennumukaina pattikulodi savulameeda matladarendukanee/ naakippudu pattisenante-/pattisalla Madhya aagamaipoyina maa aadapillale gneptikostunnaru/purugu mandante- seyyani neraniki dongani jesi/bodrayi daggara kattipadeste/maannasaniki penam tesikotanike andanipandelle agapadathadi
[4] Varadaiah, Nagesh Babu, Teresh babu and Khaza. Nishani Dhikkara Kavitha a poetic response to those who are critical on Dalit movement and its literature. Nagesh Babu: Na kallenela meeda natitenera/idoka sasyasyamal desamayindee!nenu ralchina chemata chukkala avirera/ aa akasaniko neelibottuni diddindee…. Gatanni tavvi nee samadi didla keeratanlnla charitrani pudchesi/oka koth patanee/ oka kotha desanne nirmistunnam/ manishi-/ kevalam manishine sidhantanga prakatistunnam/manishine manifestoga avishkaristunnam . P.15

[5] Nagesh babu. Madduri. oka rakshasudi prakatana, Velivada p.59
Nenu desanni pourasatvanni premistunna vadni
Denni oka kularahita vargarahita swargamga chudalani

[6] Samar Haralankar and Uday Mahurkar. Siluva Meeda Sivalu, India Today, 12 January, 1999.


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Nagesh Babu, Madduri. Loya, Ponnur : Lokayata Publications, 1997
Nagesh Babu, Madduri. Meerevutlu, Narasaropet: Sreeja Publications, 1998
Nagesh Babu, Madduri. Naraloka Prarthana., Narasaropet: Alice Publications, 2002
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Nagesh babu, Madduri, Godavari , Ongole: Manavatha prachuranalu, 2007
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